Taylor Wondergem ACF Abstract FY11

"When do Boys Start Smiling Less than Girls? A Yearbook Photographs Analysis"

Conference Name: Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting

Previous research has demonstrated that women smile more frequently and more broadly than men. However, little research has focused specifically on the age at which this gender difference first emerges, as well as differences between African Americans and European Americans. This study attempts to identify the age at which gender differences in smiling emerge among European American and African American children, as well as, identifies differences in smiling between African American and European American. Yearbook photographs ranging from kindergarten through high school were examined. Results suggest that a significant gender difference in smiling emerges in fourth grade. In addition, differences in smiling were found to be greater between African American males and females than between European American males and females.