Assistive Technology Computers

Assistive Technology Computer Workstations are now available in many Grand Valley State University computer labs. These are equipped with the newest Screen Magnification and Screen Reader software, a Text-to-Speech "reading machine" with the ability to scan any printed document into the computer and have the computer read that document to you - see WYNN software website. Inspiration , a writing assistance program, is also available. They also have headsets, alternate keyboards, and pointing devices.  All have reasonable access room for wheelchairs, some have adjustable tables.

Assistive Technology workstations in the Manitou Hall Lab are Reserved, that is, they are only to be used by students with special needs.

Assistive Technology workstations in other labs are Priority, which means that students with special needs have first call.  In a class, that station should be left open unless a student in the class has special needs, or if no other workstation is available.  When a room is an Open Lab, this means that students without special needs should not use the station unless no other station is available.  If a student with special needs is "next-in-line" in a full lab and any computer opens up, the student working on the Priority station must move to the other open computer.

These Assistive Technology workstations are located in:
Manitou Hall  - 207
Mackinac Hall  -  A-1-121  -  A-2-151  -  D-2-117  -  D-2-233
Henry Hall  -  112  -  113  -  115  -  116  -  117
Connection  -  210  -  212
Holland Meijer Campus  -  143  -  145
DeVos Center  -  203A  -  204A  -  205A

GVSU assistive technology hardware and software includes:

  • WYNN Wizard 5.1 (What You Need Now) [Freedom Scientific] A text-to-speech "Reading Machine" software package designed to assist users with learning disabilities. WYNN Wizard allows any text to be scanned or imported from a Windows program, and voiced out loud in a self-defined environment. Users can view the document in either an exact image view, or a simpler text-only view. Words are highlighted as they are voiced by the computer. Users can add bookmarks and colored highlights to text, and insert typed or spoken notes. WYNN Wizard allows users to individualize a custom reading environment, including speed, voice selection, colors and font.
  • MAGic 11 Screen Magnifier [Freedom Scientific] A screen magnifier designed to assist users with visual impairments. MAGic allows screen magnification of up to 16x. Several screen magnification modes are available, including full screen, lens, and a dockable magnified window. MAGic integrates with JAWS to allow text on the screen to be voiced by the computer. 
  • JAWS Screen Reader Professional 11 [Freedom Scientific] A screen reader designed to allow computer access to users who are blind. Jaws voices text from documents and screen objects, and provides control of Windows by a set of keyboard commands. JAWS provides nearly complete computer access to individuals who are blind.
  • Inspiration 8 [Inspiration Software] A graphical organizer program designed to assist a user with all stages of a writing project. Inspiration provides a graphical view in which users brainstorm and use concept mapping to connect ideas and organize a work of writing. Inspiration automatically creates an outline which can be used as the basis for the final work. All text can be voiced out loud.
  • Mouse Alternatives For each GVSU accessible computer lab station there is a trackball available if preferred.
  • Alternate Keyboard For each GVSU accessible computer lab station there is a "Big Keys" keyboard available, in both "QWERTY" and "ABC" formats. Keyguards are also available.
  • Headset Users are encouraged to supply headsets. Headsets are also available from the student technicians, or by contacting the IT Helpdesk. All assistive technology workstations are equipped with front-side audio jacks, or with extension cables from the back of the PC. Audio extension cables are attached to the keyboard cable. The cable with the green label is for sound, and the cable with the red label is for the microphone input.

Soon, the Macintosh labs will be upgraded with similar software.

A few basics:

  • Your design options expand if you offer a text-only "mirror site"
  • Frames make sites inaccessible
  • Borders are difficult for web page readers
  • Don't use confusing background images or patterns
  • Provide Alternate Text for all images
  • If using tables to construct pages always offer a text-only version of the same information
  • If using Image Maps always offer a text-only version of the same information
  • Make sure your colors are easy-to-read, and check them out on a variety of monitors

WAI Page Authoring Guidelines  the "official" rules  [opens new browser window]
Website Accessibility  at the University of Oregon [opens new browser window]
"Bobby" approved, the web accessibility check system on line

 

Introduction:

What does "Web Accessibility" mean? Web site accessibility means that a web page can be accessed successfully in a variety of ways, by users with or without disabilities. It also allows your pages to load faster, work with all browsers and all modems, and print more economically than many "non-accessible" web designs. Think of your web site as a building. Just as buildings must now have entrances, doorways, phones, and rest rooms that work for users with or without disabilities, your web site should too.

Web accessibility is not necessarily very difficult, but it can be very important. The simplest solution is to build a "mirror site" that is "text only." This should be linked to your main pages with a link in the upper left corner (of the upper left frame, if frames are used). Remember, if your site provides information to any students, it must, by federal law, be accessible to all students. Institutional and individual legal liability can result from a lack of accessibility. And, what works for students with disabilities typically works as well or better for students without disabilities, but the reverse is typically not true.

What disabilities block web access? A variety of impairments can create problems. Students who are blind or otherwise visually impaired may use a variety of special web browsers and "screen" or "hypertext readers" to look for information on the web. At GVSU our standard screen reader is a component of our Zoom-Text program. Students with learning disabilities and/or attention impairments often require specific color and font palettes, or may need to translate web pages into "reading machine" software programs. Students with mobility or dexterity limitations may use special keyboards or pointing devices to operate specific web browsers. With each of these issues come web design requirements.

Are there general web design guidelines for accessibility? Absolutely, and some are very, very easy.

  • "Text-only" mirror sites are an excellent idea. They work best for screen readers as well as anyone with a slow connection, and they print easily, quickly, and with a minimum use of laser or deskjet cartridges. Make sure the link to the text-only version of your site is in the upper left corner of your home page (of the upper left frame, if frames are used), so people can find it and switch immediately.
  • The easiest way to build a mirror site is to simply create an additional page for every page on your web site. In Microsoft FrontPage98 (or other web authoring tools), set the background, font, and colors to "default," which allows everything to respond to the users selections. Then simply copy everything on each page and paste it into the blank page.
  • Once you've done that, select all, switch all type to black, the default font, and pick one size (this will wipe out any other formatting). After you've done that switch both the color and size to "default."
  • Then, remove all images, and redirect links to the other text only pages. (You may want to offer the option of going back to "graphic" or "java" pages.
  • Remember to update the text-only pages whenever you update any other part of your site.

If you'd rather not "mirror," here are some general guidelines:

  • Watch your use of "frames" and/or "borders." Screen readers cannot jump across these electronic walls right now. If you must use frames or borders make sure a link to a text-only version of your site is the very first thing encountered (upper left corner).
  • Be careful with the use of "backgrounds" on your web pages. These pictures or graphics or textures look "cool" but can dramatically decrease readability for everyone, especially those with visual, learning, or attention impairments. Make sure that you check the look of any background on a variety of computers, old and new, with good and bad monitors of various sizes. Often what you see is not what others see.
  • Use font colors that provide sufficient contrast with the background (black or dark navy blue on white or pale gray always works well).
  • Use very bright reds and yellows sparingly. These can create visual chaos for users with learning and attention disabilities.
  • Also, use "reversed" type sparingly. It looks dramatic, but it is proven to be far more difficult to read.
  • If you are using "JAVA" on your pages, provide a text-only mirror site. JAVA increases load time, doesn't work with some older browsers, and is essentially inaccessible.
  • If "tables" are used to design pages, provide an alternate way to access the information before the table. Tables are not accessible via screen readers.
  • All images should have "alt tags" that clearly explain what the image is.
  • If "image maps" are used, alternate routes to the same information must be provided before the image map.
EZ Guidelines:

The University of Oregon's Five Easy Steps to Web Accessibility:   (Thanks, University of Oregon)

Make sure your pages are clearly recognized in all browsers, including older versions of current browsers.

Include clear and concise ALT Tags for all images and graphics appearing in your site. Clear your cache, set your browser to images "off," and browse your site.

Use single columns only.

Provide alternatives to FORM input (e-mail link, contact phone number, etc.).

Provide clear and uniform site navigation features

Page Design Details:

Audio (Made Accessible) As designers include more sounds with their sites they will have to consider deaf or hard-of-hearing (hoh) users. Since this is a relatively new area of accessibility, there is less published and fewer recommended standards. Clearly, the existing closed caption model from television will be a starting place. CPB/WGBH National Center for Accessible Media (NCAM) is doing research in this area. [Tip: Avoid offering any information via sound that is not clearly available elsewhere, remember that those browsing your site from school computer labs often dont have sound available anyway.]

Audio (As an Accessibility) Some web designers want to offer access to text via sound files. The problem with this is that sound files cannot be navigated. Usually the user plays it completely and then has the option to replay it. Screen readers can stop on a word, repeat it, go to the previous word, and even spell the word if it is difficult to understand, such as a name. It is recommended that designers work with existing access technology rather than trying to create their own. [Tip: The capability for this is on the way, but is not generally available now, we'll keep you posted.]

Blinking Links or Graphics Avoid. Screen readers can be set to report any new information appearing on the screen. Blinking text is sometimes reported over and over, interrupting the users reading of the screen. [Tip: Don't use blinking links or graphics, they are not accessible and are awful for those with attention impairments.]

Cascading Style Sheets Make sure that your page works well in a browser that either does not support style sheets or in which style sheets have been turned off. Low-vision users may have their browser set to fonts and/or colors that are easiest for them to see. [Tip: Don't "lock-up" your site so that users with disabilities or lower end connections cant access it.]

Columns Avoid or offer an alternative to multiple columns. The current state of screen readers is that most of them are unable to discern columns in web pages. The page will be read left to right and top to bottom. [Tip: Don't use columns.]

Frames Frames are currently considered inaccessible page presentation. In time, this should change as browsers handle them with greater sophistication and the screen-readers can more intelligently map the screen. Until that happens, avoid using FRAMES, but if you must, please include an accessible alternative, either as a separate page, or by including the accessible HTML for FRAME-unaware browsers. [Tip: Don't use frames, unless you have a full alternative site.]

Fonts Specifying fonts can render your information inaccessible. Both users with disabilities and without may set up their browser to personal font and color selections. Avoid designs that conflict with those choices. [Tip: Don't "lock-up" your site so that users with disabilities or lower end connections can't access it.]

Images Always include an informative "alt text". Some designers recommend rather detailed descriptions. Try at least to avoid being vague. "University of Oregon Logo" is better than just "Logo." A good test is to clear your cache, turn images off, and navigate your site. You should be able to quite easily. [Tip: In FrontPage if you "right-click" on any graphic and select "properties" you will be able to change the "alt. text" from the image name to a description, all images need alt. text.]

Image Maps Image maps are not accessible to blind users and may present difficulties for users with low-vision. Provide the same links in a traditional format elsewhere on the page. If you use the ALT tag as the traditional link, make sure that the frame for the graphic allows the entire ATL tag to be read. [Tip: Don't use image maps unless you have a clearly indicated alternative route before the image map.].

Links Always offer a simple traditional link, at least as an alternative. No matter how elaborate your links get, always give the user a simple direct alternative on the same page. Make the links informative and not just the word "here." Single links should appear on one line and not break across multiple lines. [Tip: It's great to use pictures as a link, but make sure they have appropriate alt. text ("link to my statistics page" as well as a text-based link that is descriptive.]

Lists Some screen-readers cannot interpret graphic bullets. Unless the list is extremely obvious, such as, each item is a link, then use a numbered list. [Tip: If you "alt. text" label any graphic bullets you'll be OK.]

Tables Tables typically can be difficult to follow when read with a screen reader. Either design your tables to work in a browser not aware of tables or provide a link to an alternate presentation of the information. [Tip: Don't use tables for basic page design. Don't use tables for menus or information unless you have a clearly indicated alternative before the table.]

 

Now check your page

  "Bobby" is a program that analyzes web sites for accessibility in all available web browsers. It is a free service of the Center for Applied Special Technology ["CAST"], a major source of assistive technology information and guidance. "Bobby Approved" status indicates that your site has been designed appropriately. Though some university sites "cheat" and put the "Bobby" logo on pages which fail, at GVSU your site must be approved in the following browsers (at a minimum), Netscape 4.7, Netscape 3.0, AOL for Windows/Mac, and HTML 4.0.

  • Go to http://www.cast.org/bobby/advanced.html.
  • Now put in your web site's address
  • Choose one browser "impersonation" [Netscape 4, Netscape 3, Internet Explorer 4, or AOL 3
  • For "HTML Specifications" use "Accessibility Ratings" for all browsers, then run one check with HTML 4.0
  • Test your site with a number of browsers, for GVSU sites we recommend that you check Navigator 4.5 (our campus browser), Navigator 3.0 (still much in use, especially with Macintosh), HTML 4.0 (a basic check), and AOL 3.0 and one or two earlier AOL versions (most off-campus hits on the GVSU site are via AOL
  • Click on "submit" and shortly, "Bobby" will return a review of your page, along with lots of information, questions and advice, and will say whether your site is "Bobby-Approved" or not.
  • "Yes" or "No"
  • Test your site with all appropriate browsers, Navigator 4.5 (our campus browser), Navigator 3.0 (still much in use, especially with Macintosh), HTML 4.0 (a basic check), and AOL 3.0 and one or two earlier AOL versions (most off-campus hits on the GVSU site are via AOL).
  • Your site should be approved in all those browsers.
  • Once approved, add the "Bobby" icon to your site.
WAI/W3C Basic Guidelines :

from The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

For those unfamiliar with accessibility issues pertaining to Web page design, consider that many users may be operating in contexts very different from your own:

They may not be able to see, hear, move, or may not be able to process some types of information easily or at all.

They may have difficulty reading or comprehending text.

They may not have or be able to use a keyboard or mouse.

They may have a text-only screen, a small screen, or a slow Internet connection.

They may not speak or understand fluently the language in which the document is written.

They may be in a situation where their eyes, ears, or hands are busy or interfered with (e.g., driving to work, working in a loud environment, etc.).

They may have an early version of a browser, a different browser entirely, a voice browser, or a different operating system.

Content developers must consider these different situations during page design. While there are several situations to consider, each accessible design choice generally benefits several disability groups at once and the Web community as a whole.

Guideline: Provide Equivalent Alternatives

Provide content that, when presented to the user, conveys essentially the same function or purpose as auditory or visual content. Although some people cannot use images, movies, sounds, applets, etc. directly, they may still use pages that include equivalent information to the visual or auditory content. The equivalent information must serve the same purpose as the visual or auditory content. Thus, a text equivalent for an image of an upward arrow that links to a table of contents could be "Go to table of contents". In some cases, an equivalent should also describe the appearance of visual content (e.g., for complex charts, billboards, or diagrams) or the sound of auditory content (e.g., for audio samples used in education).

This guideline emphasizes the importance of providing text equivalents of non-text content (images, prerecorded audio, video). The power of text equivalents lies in their capacity to be rendered in ways that are accessible to people from various disability groups using a variety of technologies. Text can be readily output to speech synthesizers and braille displays, and can be presented visually (in a variety of sizes) on computer displays and paper. Synthesized speech is critical for individuals who are blind and for many people with the reading difficulties that often accompany cognitive disabilities, learning disabilities, and deafness. Braille is essential for individuals who are both deaf and blind, as well as many individuals whose only sensory disability is blindness. Text displayed visually benefits users who are deaf as well as the majority of Web users.

Providing non-text equivalents (e.g., pictures, videos, and prerecorded audio) of text is also beneficial to some users, especially nonreaders or people who have difficulty reading. In movies or visual presentations, visual action such as body language or other visual cues may not be accompanied by enough audio information to convey the same information. Unless verbal descriptions of this visual information are provided, people who cannot see (or look at) the visual content will not be able to perceive it.

Guideline: Graceful Transitions

By following these guidelines, content developers can create pages that transform gracefully. Pages that transform gracefully remain accessible despite any of the constraints described in the introduction, including physical, sensory, and cognitive disabilities, work constraints, and technological barriers. Here are some keys to designing pages that transform gracefully:

Separate structure from presentation (refer to the difference between content, structure, and presentation). Provide text (including text equivalents). Text can be rendered in ways that are available to almost all browsing devices and accessible to almost all users.

Create documents that work even if the user cannot see and/or hear. Provide information that serves the same purpose or function as audio or video in ways suited to alternate sensory channels as well. This does not mean creating a prerecorded audio version of an entire site to make it accessible to users who are blind. Users who are blind can use screen reader technology to render all text information in a page.

Create documents that do not rely on one type of hardware. Pages should be usable by people without mice, with small screens, low resolution screens, black and white screens, no screens, with only voice or text output, etc.

Guideline: Making Content Understandable and Navigable

Content developers should make content understandable and navigable. This includes not only making the language clear and simple, but also providing understandable mechanisms for navigating within and between pages. Providing navigation tools and orientation information in pages will maximize accessibility and usability. Not all users can make use of visual clues such as image maps, proportional scroll bars, side-by-side frames, or graphics that guide sighted users of graphical desktop browsers. Users also lose contextual information when they can only view a portion of a page, either because they are accessing the page one word at a time (speech synthesis or braille display), or one section at a time (small display, or a magnified display). Without orientation information, users may not be able to understand very large tables, lists, menus, etc.

Guideline: Device Independence

Use features that enable activation of page elements via a variety of input devices.

Device-independent access means that the user may interact with the user agent or document with a preferred input (or output) device -- mouse, keyboard, voice, head wand, or other. If, for example, a form control can only be activated with a mouse or other pointing device, someone who is using the page without sight, with voice input, or with a keyboard or who is using some other non-pointing input device will not be able to use the form.

Providing text equivalents for image maps or images used as links makes it possible for users to interact with them without a pointing device.

Generally, pages that allow keyboard interaction are also accessible through speech input or a command line interface.

Guideline: Ensure that moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating objects or pages may be paused or stopped

Some people with cognitive or visual disabilities are unable to read moving text quickly enough or at all. Movement can also cause such a distraction that the rest of the page becomes unreadable for people with cognitive disabilities. Screen readers are unable to read moving text. People with physical disabilities might not be able to move quickly or accurately enough to interact with moving objects.

Guideline: Ensure that documents are clear, simple and easily understood.

Consistent page layout, recognizable graphics, and easy to understand language benefit all users. In particular, they help people with cognitive disabilities or who have difficulty reading. (However, ensure that images have text equivalents for people who are blind, have low vision, or for any user who cannot or has chosen not to view graphics.)

Using clear and simple language promotes effective communication. Access to written information can be difficult for people who have cognitive or learning disabilities. Using clear and simple language also benefits people whose first language differs from your own, including those people who communicate primarily in sign language.

Full, Advanced Guidelines:

The complete WAI/W3C guidelines are available on the web at:    http://www.w3.org
Other locations for detailed information include the Information Technology site at GVSU, the CREATE site "Building Accessible Web Sites" page, and the "Bobby" site at the Center for Applied Special Technology (http://www.cast.org/bobby).

Glossary

Accessible
Content is accessible when it may be used by someone with a disability.

Applet
A program inserted into a Web page.

Assistive technology
Software or hardware that has been specifically designed to assist people with disabilities in carrying out daily activities. Assistive technology includes wheelchairs, reading machines, devices for grasping, etc. In the area of Web Accessibility, common software-based assistive technologies include screen readers, screen magnifiers, speech synthesizers, and voice input software that operate in conjunction with graphical desktop browsers (among other user agents). Hardware assistive technologies include alternative keyboards and pointing devices.

Authoring tool
HTML editors, document conversion tools, tools that generate Web content from databases are all authoring tools. Microsoft FrontPage 2000 is GVSU's standard authoring tool.

Backward compatible
Design that continues to work with earlier versions of a language, program, etc.

Braille
Braille uses six raised dots in different patterns to represent letters and numbers to be read by people who are blind with their fingertips. The word "Accessible" in braille follows:

A braille display, commonly referred to as a "dynamic braille display," raises or lowers dot patterns on command from an electronic device, usually a computer. The result is a line of braille that can change from moment to moment. Current dynamic braille displays range in size from one cell (six or eight dots) to an eighty-cell line, most having between twelve and twenty cells per line.

Browser

A web browser is your World Wide Web tool. At GVSU we use Netscape Communicator 4.7 (or higher). Other popular browsers include Microsoft Internet Explorer ("IE5"). People with disabilities often use specially designed browsers that make web navigation easier for them.

Content developer
Someone who authors Web pages or designs Web sites.

Device independent
Users must be able to interact with a user agent (and the document it renders) using the supported input and output devices of their choice and according to their needs. Input devices may include pointing devices, keyboards, braille devices, head wands, microphones, and others. Output devices may include monitors, speech synthesizers, and braille devices. Please note that "device-independent support" does not mean that user agents must support every input or output device. User agents should offer redundant input and output mechanisms for those devices that are supported. For example, if a user agent supports keyboard and mouse input, users should be able to interact with all features using either the keyboard or the mouse.

Document Content, Structure, and Presentation
The content of a document refers to what it says to the user through natural language, images, sounds, movies, animations, etc. The structure of a document is how it is organized logically (e.g., by chapter, with an introduction and table of contents, etc.). An element (e.g., P, STRONG, BLOCKQUOTE in HTML) that specifies document structure is called a structural element. The presentation of a document is how the document is rendered (e.g., as print, as a two-dimensional graphical presentation, as an text-only presentation, as synthesized speech, as braille, etc.) An element that specifies document presentation (e.g., B, FONT, CENTER) is called a presentation element. Consider a document header, for example. The content of the header is what the header says (e.g., "Sailboats"). In HTML, the header is a structural element marked up with, for example, an H2 element. Finally, the presentation of the header might be a bold block text in the margin, a centered line of text, a title spoken with a certain voice style (like an aural font), etc.

Dynamic HTML (DHTML)
DHTML is the marketing term applied to a mixture of standards including HTML, style sheets, the Document Object Model [DOM1] and scripting. However, there is no W3C specification that formally defines DHTML. Most guidelines may be applicable to applications using DHTML.

Equivalent
Content is "equivalent" to other content when both fulfill essentially the same function or purpose upon presentation to the user. In the context of this document, the equivalent must fulfill essentially the same function for the person with a disability (at least insofar as is feasible, given the nature of the disability and the state of technology), as the primary content does for the person without any disability. Note that equivalent information focuses on fulfilling the same function. If the image is part of a link and understanding the image is crucial to guessing the link target, an equivalent must also give users an idea of the link target. Providing equivalent information for inaccessible content is one of the primary ways authors can make their documents accessible to people with disabilities.

As part of fulfilling the same function of content an equivalent may involve a description of that content (i.e., what the content looks like or sounds like). For example, in order for users to understand the information conveyed by a complex chart, authors should describe the visual information in the chart.
    Since text content can be presented to the user as synthesized speech, braille, and visually-displayed text, these guidelines require text equivalents for graphic and audio information. Text equivalents must be written so that they convey all essential content.
    Non-text equivalents (e.g., an auditory description of a visual presentation, a video of a person telling a story using sign language as an equivalent for a written story, etc.) also improve accessibility for people who cannot access visual information or written text, including many individuals with blindness, cognitive disabilities, learning disabilities, and deafness.

HTML
HTML - hyper-text markup language is the basic programming language of the World Wide Web. You can "write" your page in HTML or use an "authoring tool" (such as FrontPage98) that automatically writes the code.

Image
A graphical presentation.

Image map
An image that has been divided into regions with associated actions. Clicking on an active region causes an action to occur. When a user clicks on an active region of a client-side image map, the user agent calculates in which region the click occurred and follows the link associated with that region. Clicking on an active region of a server-side image map causes the coordinates of the click to be sent to a server, which then performs some action.

Important
Information in a document is important if understanding that information is crucial to understanding the document.

Linearized table
A table rendering process where the contents of the cells become a series of paragraphs (e.g., down the page) one after another. The paragraphs will occur in the same order as the cells are defined in the document source. Cells should make sense when read in order and should include structural elements (that create paragraphs, headers, lists, etc.) so the page makes sense after linearization.

Link text
The rendered text content of a link.

Natural Language
Spoken, written, or signed human languages such as French, Japanese, American Sign Language, and braille. The natural language of content may be indicated with the "lang" attribute in HTML.

Navigation Mechanism
A navigation mechanism is any means by which a user can navigate a page or site. Some typical mechanisms include:
navigation bars A navigation bar is a collection of links to the most important parts of a document or site.
site maps A site map provides a global view of the organization of a page or site.
tables of contents A table of contents generally lists (and links to) the most important sections of a document.

Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
A PDA is a small, portable computing device. Most PDAs are used to track personal data such as calendars, contacts, and electronic mail. A PDA is generally a handheld device with a small screen that allows input from various sources.

Screen magnifier
A software program that magnifies a portion of the screen, so that it can be more easily viewed. Screen magnifiers are used primarily by individuals with low vision.

Screen reader
A software program that reads the contents of the screen aloud to a user. Screen readers are used primarily by individuals who are blind. Screen readers can usually only read text that is printed, not painted, to the screen.

Style sheets
A style sheet is a set of statements that specify presentation of a document. Style sheets may have three different origins: they may be written by content providers, created by users, or built into user agents.

Tabular information
When tables are used to represent logical relationships among data -- text, numbers, images, etc., that information is called "tabular information" and the tables are called "data tables". The relationships expressed by a table may be rendered visually (usually on a two-dimensional grid), aurally (often preceding cells with header information), or in other formats.

Text-only
Text-only pages are those presented in black letters on white background, with "default" selected for font, font-color, and background attributes. No graphics of any kind are included, all type is typically one size.

User agent
Software to access Web content, including desktop graphical browsers, text browsers, voice browsers, mobile phones, multimedia players, plug-ins, and some software assistive technologies used in conjunction with browsers such as screen readers, screen magnifiers, and voice recognition software.

Page last modified August 16, 2013